Are We Ready for Artificial Intelligence? – VisualPolitik EN

Are We Ready for Artificial Intelligence? – VisualPolitik EN


Many of you may have experienced doubts about
certain future technological advancements. Don’t deny it. A fear of technology, of artificial intelligence,
of autonomous cars, of factories without workers, of smart robots. The panic of our jobs being taken away, of
a few gaining power at the expense of others, of inequalities multiplying, and even of machines
controlling us and taking over the world. Can machines really replace human beings? Could they manage to teach themselves and
take control of civilization? What role will people play in a world of intelligent
machines? Folks, this fear of change, of the unknown,
of the future… has become something like our own 21st century phantom… A phantom that is now moving throughout the
planet. Although… You know what? Truthfully, this isn’t new. The relationship between human beings and
machines has never been simple, it has always awakened mixed feelings. Some fear them and others, on the other hand,
see them as an opportunity for progress. There are those who view them with distrust
and those who adopt them as great allies. Blessed machines. And, of course, there are always those who
predict that, because of all these machines, the end of humanity is getting nearer. By the way, before we continue. What group do you belong to? Tell me in the comments and also in the survey
at the end of the video. And of course, along with all these fears,
the typical contradictions always arise: We protest because the machines take our jobs
and. At the same time, we complain about the mundane
and exhausting jobs, to which many employees are subjected, especially the least qualified
ones. Or, for example, another very typical contradiction:
almost every day we hear union leaders demanding a shorter work day, while at the same time
rejecting or wanting to halt technology, which would actually lead to that. Then… there’s one of my favorites. Many politicians continually denounce workers’
low purchasing power, while they place obstacles and even prohibit technologies that increase
productivity and lower prices. Have you thought about the taxi sector and
platforms like UBER? I have. Of course, folks, in the end, adapting to
new changes tends to be a matter of time. Do you know a single person who worries about
jobs that have disappeared because of mobile phones? Do you know anyone who wants to ban electric
power because it hurt candle factory workers? But… it’s true that, as we mentioned before,
the arrival of artificial intelligence… has led to some new questions and new challenges. But before we talk about all that, here’s
a bit of history (FEAR OF CHANGES) Many of the political speeches we hear every
day pose nothing new. And the alarms raised about technological
changes come directly from such speeches. See, from the very beginning, from the time
human beings lived in caves, humanity has progressed thanks to the use of tools. To hunt, to gather, to cultivate, to conserve
food or to improve productivity. Tools have given us the chance to achieve
better lives… In fact, nowadays, humanity is experiencing
the greatest welfare in all of history. However, during a particular moment in history,
tools and machines became something like an enemy to be beaten, at least for a certain
part of society: We’re talking about the industrial revolution. Even though the Industrial Revolution meant
a huge leap in terms of welfare for billions of people. The fact is that, at the time, machines began
to be used widely… protests against them multiplied and movements of all kinds emerged
against the use of new technologies. The basic argument was that so many machines
would leave artisans, workers and peasants out of work. The most famous of these reactions was that
of the Luddites, who at the beginning of the 19th century promoted attacks against factories,
and especially against machines. They hated them with all their might, and
of course, had to destroy them because a world with machines would be terrible. Between you and me… thank goodness they
didn’t get their way. Can you imagine what life would be like? But… before we continue… here’s a question. What do you think about trains? Do you like them? Do you think they are useful? Or do you consider them dangerous? You think they’re worth having around, right? Well… I think that President Martin Van Buren, the
eighth president of the United States, wouldn’t agree with us… As Michael Cox and Richard Alm tell us in
their book “Myths Of Rich And Poor: Why We’re Better Off Than We Think”; in 1829
Martin Van Buren was very concerned about the dangers of the railroad. He was so concerned, that he even wrote to
President Andrew Jackson to ask him to push a railroad ban. You heard that right. Martin Van Buren thought… that the railroad
would risk the jobs of thousands of people who worked in deliveries and in canals and
boat construction. In fact, since Martin Van Buren also thought
that ships were essential to defend the United States, he considered the railroad to be a
serious threat to national security. And that’s not all… in the same letter he
addressed to President Andrew Jackson, Van Buren also warned about the danger a transportation
system that moved at a whopping 24km per hour posed to people’s lives. How crazy is that? Yes, I know, these arguments may seem ridiculous
nowadays… but at the time many people took all these ideas very seriously. And…. okay, it’s true… technological changes have caused difficulties
throughout history. Think, for example, about what happened with
the development of telecommunications. See, when telephony became massive, in its
early days when you wanted to talk to someone… you gave an operator the name and surname
of the person you wanted to talk to… By the second half of the 20th century, which
wasn’t so long ago… tens of thousands of operators worked connecting long distance
calls. Which, of course, made calls very expensive. However, by 1980, technology allowed communications
to be made directly, without intermediaries… suddenly the operators became irrelevant…
and calls became very cheap. So, what happened to all those people? Well… they had to find new jobs. Yes, I know, adapting isn’t always easy…
but evidently this change in telephony was very beneficial for society as a whole. Communications became easier and much cheaper. That’s why… the important thing is to generate
loads of employment opportunities within a society and make it relatively easy to change
jobs. Can you imagine if a state, a government had
forbidden these positions from disappearing? That country’s communications would still
be very slow, people would sometimes have to wait hours to speak with someone, and calls
would be very expensive. All of this would have made the economy and
the total number of jobs in that country not very good, Because folks, we tend to forget one thing:
now, as you watch this video, you’re going through the time in history where technology
is used the most… and you know what? It’s also the time where more people work. In fact, it’s curious but the countries
that use the most robots are precisely those that suffer the least unemployment. Not bad, right? Now… some of you may be thinking… Simon…. Artificial intelligence is going to be different. Well, let’s delve into that. (THE TIME OF AI) Friends, the time of artificial intelligence
and robots is here. Every day we use more products and services
that function with artificial intelligence… from voice assistants to the autonomous cars
that are already beginning to circulate. And, yes, the speed with which this intelligence
progresses is impressive. We could say that artificial intelligence
involves applying the enormous power of computers to solve problems. Well, in the last 30 years, the cost of computing
capacity became 200 million times cheaper. To give you an idea of what this means, we
could say that if the car industry’s cost had evolved in the same way… today a high-end
car would cost only four ten-thousandths of what it does…. Which would be less than a Venezuelan Bolivar–a
Bolivar under Nicolás Maduro. This evolution is, precisely, what explains
why today a PlayStation 4 costs less than 400 dollars, even if it is about 2,000 times
more powerful than the Cray-2 supercomputer, one of the most famous computers in history,
which beat all the records in 1984. And… this computer, unlike the Play Station
4, weighed two and a half tons and cost 18 million dollars. Today, a play station 4 can perform 1.84 trillion
floating point operations per second… This would take a person approximately 60,000
years to do. And it’s precisely that enormous calculation
capacity that is allowing AIs to replace us in several tasks. For example, sooner or later, the autonomous
car will end up imposing itself… We won’t be able to compete with its calculation
capabilities, especially now that these machines have managed to perceive their environment
thanks to cameras, microphones and sensors. So yes, based on how things are evolving,
it seems almost certain that in a relatively short time… many mechanical and routine
jobs… from factories to the field… will be carried out by “smart machines”. But this means that productivity… will increase
a lot… and with it most people’s well-being. ( “I think in the next 30 years, people
only work four hours a day and maybe four days a week […] My grandfather worked 16
hours a day in the farmland and thought he was] very busy. We work eight hours, five days a week and
think we are very busy.” Jack Ma, Chairman of Alibaba) And no doubt… during this time many new
jobs will be created… of all kinds… because see, the question we may want to ask ourselves
is, are machines close to surpassing us? Well… for some tasks, yes, but for many
others, no. See, machines can compute very quickly, but
they have problems learning. Computers are very inefficient learners, they
only recognize patterns after analyzing something an overwhelming number of times. That’s our great advantage. ( The most advanced machine learning systems
require thousands of examples to acquire new concepts, while humans can generalize from
a few examples. Many animals can learn from a limited number
of experiences, but humans seem particularly good at generalizing based on a few amounts
of experiences. Greg Corrado, Stanford neuroscientist and
Director of Augmented Intelligence at Google.) This explains why nowadays, humans are far
superior in areas such as creativity, innovation, intuition and empathy. Folks, nobody can predict the future, but
until now machines have always meant more jobs and better welfare for all. In the near future it’s almost certain that
what is already happening will continue to happen: some jobs will be destroyed and many
others will be created… not only highly qualified ones… but all kinds. And probably, working hours will decrease
and real wages will increase. Beyond that, it’s very hard to predict what
may or may not happen, but… Let’s not fall into the same mistakes that
the former US president, Martin Van Buren, fell into due to his fear and his rejection
of the railroad. There are still many challenges to overcome
in the world, such as poverty and environmental sustainability. And machines can help us a lot. But now it’s your turn, what’s your perspective
on AI? Leave your answer in the comments as well
as in the survey. So I really hope you enjoyed this video, please
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