Eugene Bagashov: Asteroid Missions and Crumbling Theories | Space News

Eugene Bagashov: Asteroid Missions and Crumbling Theories | Space News


Welcome to Space News from
the Electric Universe, brought to you by
The Thunderbolts Project™ at Thunderbolts.info Today, two spacecraft exploring two separate
asteroids may provide critical data that could change scientists’ thoughts
about these mysterious rocky worlds. Since June of 2018, the
Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa2 has surveyed the surface
of the asteroid Ryugu and recently Japan’s space agency
performed a touchdown on the object to collect physical samples, which
will reach the Earth late next year. Meanwhile, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft is
exploring an asteroid of remarkably similar size, called Bennu, with dust samples from the
asteroid scheduled to return to Earth in 2023. Already, what the spacecraft have
found has surprised scientists on Earth, including the “surprisingly
dry” surface of Ryugu, and recently, the completely
unexpected emission of “energetic plumes” of particles
from the asteroid Bennu. In part 1 of this
three-part presentation, physicist Eugene Bagashov explores in detail
what the missions have already found, and he suggests from the
Electric Universe perspective what forthcoming
discoveries might reveal. Recently, there has been quite
a surge of research papers published in journals Science and Nature
regarding the preliminary results of OSIRIS REx and Hayabusa2 missions to the asteroids
Bennu and Ryugu correspondingly. Here I wish to review
some of these results and their possible implications
for the Electric Universe paradigm. Firstly, I’d like to
give a rough description of what astronomers currently believe
is the origin of these objects so that all the following findings and surprises
could be placed in the proper context. So from what I’ve read in these 10 papers,
it follows that both Bennu and Ryugu are supposed to have formed
in the inner asteroid belt, some hundreds of millions of years
ago or perhaps a billion years ago, being the results of a
disruption of larger bodies, approximately
100-kilometer-sized asteroids. And supposedly, of course, these
disruptions were caused by impact events so the material released
during these impacts reaccreted to form what is
now known as Bennu and Ryugu, then for some unknown reason these asteroids
migrated to the inner solar system; for Bennu the current estimate
for that is about 10 million years ago and for Ryugu it’s
about 40 million years ago. And since then they both are found here,
roughly between the orbits of Earth and Mars. With regards to their internal
structure and composition, astronomers refer to
them as “rubble piles” and it is supposed that they are composed
of multitude of poorly connected pieces that have appeared after the
disruptions of their parent bodies. From that, I think we might
already see that it is acknowledged that some catastrophic events should
predate the appearance of these objects, so many of the conclusions
that the astronomers arrive at would not directly contradict the usually
assumed Electric Universe scenarios. In my opinion, the same thing might
have happened in the EU catastrophism. Indeed, it is not impossible that a
large asteroid might have been destroyed and its pieces later
formed some other bodies; it’s just the exact reason for its
destruction might have been different, namely electrical. Yet, at the same time one might pursue a line
of thinking that is more divergent from that, namely that both Ryugu and Bennu are not the
aggregates of pieces of a larger asteroid but rather single chunks
torn away from a big planet like Earth, Venus or Mars for
example, or maybe the Moon or Mercury. As far as this scenario potentially
provides more contradicting predictions with respect to the
nebular hypothesis, I would choose to mostly stick to
it although again with the caveat that it is possible to choose a version
of the origins of Ryugu and Bennu in the EU paradigm that is less disagreeable
with the nebular-hypothesis-astrophysics. Now let’s get into more details. First of all it’s worth noting
how similar these two objects are. Their size is comparable, the average
diameter of Ryugu is just a bit below 1 km and the diameter of
Bennu is about 0.5 km, they both are very dark,
almost completely black reflecting almost identical amount
of solar light of only about 4.5% which places them among the darkest
known objects in the solar system and they both demonstrate what the
scientists refer to as “spinning top shape.” That is in particular a pretty peculiar
uplift in the equatorial region which makes them
not quite spherical. Here we might mark the
first line of separation between what the astronomers believe
to be the reason for that shape and what the more extreme EU scenarios of
the planetary excavation might provide. So the idea currently adopted by research
teams of both Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx is that this shape came into being because of
the rotation of these supposed rubble piles so that the poorly bound
material just accumulated in the equatorial region due
to the centrifugal force. But what about the
electrical scenario? Could the electricity produce the
same shape, at least potentially? I believe it could and in support of this
statement I wish to remember one paper that described the application of
electric fields to fluids. The authors of this paper have
found that under some conditions, the electric fields caused the droplets of
fluid to squash almost into a pancake shape; notably at this time they also released
some material from the equatorial region in the form of smaller
droplets, or even rings, but when the field disappears, the droplets
assume the more relaxed spherical shape again. Of course, that has some implications
to the oblate shape of Saturn and the possible emergence of its rings
due to the previous electric stresses. I even once had an idea that one day we might learn to use these rings
almost like in tinder dendrochronology to determine the space
climate so to speak, the electromagnetic conditions
in the past of the solar system from the ring density and the
size of the gaps between them etc. But anyway, returning
to Ryugu and Bennu, I think it might have been
possible to achieve this same shape through application of the electric
fields during the time of their formation. It is possible again that the asteroids
therefore do not represent piles of rubble but rather a more or less homogeneous
objects with quite good internal strength that was able to retain this peculiar
shape since the time of their formation. Of course, the paper I am referring
to had dealt with liquids, but at least I believe the
general pattern is there and at the moment it is unclear what
might happen to the crustal rock during extremely intense
electric discharges. Perhaps they might undergo a
sequence of phase transitions or other types of structural
transformations etc. I should note how symmetric
and regular they look; both these objects almost
look like monolithic crystals rather than a bunch of irregular rocks
randomly stuck together with microgravity. Let’s talk now about
densities of Ryugu and Bennu. They are quite remarkably the same,
1,190 kg/m³ for both of the bodies. In my opinion, this incredible
similarity would be quite hard to achieve if both of them were the result of sticking
together of a bunch of different rocks forming the proverbial rubble pile that
the researchers keep talking about. Such similarity, in my opinion, would indicate
that perhaps both of these bodies originate from the same
type of initial rock that again, according to the
scenario discussed above, might have belonged to a large planet and
have been excavated from it electrically. What is also interesting
is that this density figure is much lower than the one usually
assumed for an average asteroid that is about 2,000 kg/m³ and much closer to the cometary nuclei that have
densities in the region of about 800 kg/m³. And just as in case
of cometary nuclei, here the researchers assume that the low
density is the result of high porosity which is estimated to
be 50% or even bigger. However, they assume
that high porosity is the result of this rubble
pile type of inner structure rather than the property
of the rock itself, but I wish to repeat my point from
the previous recent videos on Mars, I think that the higher porosity
might be the consequence of internal transformations
of the crustal planetary rock under the influence of extremely
strong electric discharges. In order to validate the
rubble pile scenario, the researchers from OSIRIS
REx team propose that there might be some internal
inhomogeneities in the asteroid Bennu. In particular, they say
that their measurements “…correspond to about 0.1%
shift in the center of mass and an approximately 0.1 degree
offset of the principal axis with respect to a
constant density shape, and they indicate heterogeneity
in the mass distribution.” Well OK, let’s suppose that
the measurements are correct, though in my opinion
that is not guaranteed, but is 0.1% shift of the center of
mass and 0.1 degree offset of the axis with respect to the constant
density shape such a big deal? Is this a good piece of evidence
for any significant inhomogeneity? It is only my opinion but I would
say that quite the contrary, such a miniscule offset indicates a pretty
homogeneous and incredibly ordered object, especially given its size. Objects less than 1 km in size
should be nowhere near as ordered if their shapes are maintained
by gravitation alone. Only bodies of few hundreds of kilometers in
size might assume spherical form gravitationally. Moreover, even if
you look at Earth, we have about 2.5 km offset of the center of
mass with respect to the center of figure, which in terms of percent
translates into 0.04. Is therefore Earth a rubble pile
or is it still highly structured? Other point that the OSIRIS REx team
makes with regards to density is that “…at 50-60%, Bennu’s high total porosity
is incompatible with a monolithic body and may be the strongest evidence
for a rubble-pile interior.” Well, it’s a shame that these people
don’t even read their colleagues’ papers, otherwise they would know that Rosetta mission
has shown that the nucleus of the comet 67P is internally highly homogeneous and at the same time it has even
higher porosity of more than 70%. So it seems that this
argument is also invalid. With regards to that, it’s
probably worth to remember the unexpectedly strong material
of the comet 67P nucleus. As you probably know,
the MUPUS penetrator, on board of Philae lander, failed
to insert itself into the nucleus and even the SD2 instrument drill seems
to have failed to make a hole in it just lifting the lander instead. In my opinion, the same underestimation might
happen with asteroids Ryugu and Bennu, if the hypothetical rubble pile
scenario would prove to be wrong. In the next two videos, we’ll discuss some
other hints that it might be the case, but so far I wish to note that this
potentially has some implications for the upcoming impactor
release event that Hayabusa2 team is currently planning to
conduct in early April. In my opinion, the estimates of the depth
of crater that this impactor would create are higher than what would
be actually observed, as the strength of the rock of
Ryugu is most likely underestimated. So perhaps the crater would be flatter
and wider rather than deeper and narrower, even though the impactor is a
2.5 kilogram copper projectile that is going to be shot into Ryugu
at the astonishing speed of 2 km/s. Now some might say that the discharge between the
impactor and the surface of Ryugu is also possible but I have some
doubts about that, given the fact that Hayabusa 2 was orbiting
the asteroid for a few months already and it even had a touchdown
on the surface in February. On a final note, I’d like to say that of
course it’s quite hard to predict exactly the properties of rock that has undergone
the processes that we don’t observe today so maybe I would be
wrong in my conclusions, even though the initial
ideas would be correct.