Gasoline – How it works | Science Garage | Donut Media

Gasoline – How it works | Science Garage | Donut Media


GAS! It’s in car, and it’s in your butt. And it’s on my mind. Alright, Lets light stuff on fire! This is cars down to the atom Gasoline. Turns out it’s not just for huffing and
getting high. It’s also for your cars and lawnmowers and
leaf-blowers! It’s so good at what it does that it powers
almost anything with a motor. But what is it? Gasoline comes from Petroleum Oil, which comes from organisms breaking down over millions of years. In the mid 1800s, people began trying to separate
it out- to get rid of the crap- to REFINE it. Now we have all kinds of liquids and oils that come from petroleum and they burn really really well. Starting with just the name— it sounds
like a chemical… but Gasoline is actually a mix of a ton of different chemicals, all
really good at burning. Its name GAS-O-LINE is made up! To sell this new fuel, they combined the word
GAS, which people knew could be fuel- as in a GAS LAMP, with the suffix OL, which sounded that it came from oil, and rounded it off with ENE- which… made it sound chemical-y. In England they just call it petrol, because
it comes from petroleum oil. We just arbitrarily named it Gasoline. Here’s basically how an engine works- air
comes in this shaft, it gets mixed with gas as it’s compressed by the piston, and when
it’s right at the top, a spark ignites the mixture, and kaboom! It drives the piston, and that drives the
engine. In the explosion gas combines with oxygen
to give off energy. One gallon of gas will combine with 20 lbs
of oxygen. That’s a lot of air! But it creates a lot of power- it also makes
18 lbs of Carbon Dioxide, and Eight and a half pounds of water. You ever notice water coming out of your tailpipe
when it’s running? That’s because it’s a by-product of the
tiny explosions going on in your engine! This is a Five gallon jug, there’s air in
there, which means there’s oxygen, just like there’s oxygen out here. I did the math, and there should be enough
oxygen to burn about two tablespoons of gasoline. What a coincidence, I happen to have two tablespoons
of gasoline right here. All we need to combine the oxygen in the jug
with the gasoline is a spark. James is going to act as our fuel injector. I’m a fuel injector! This is going to be like the cylinder in your
car, and I’ve rigged up this ignition coil to give us a spark. Don’t this at home, because it’s stupid. Yeah, do it at work. That was fun, huh? You guys see how scared James was? What happened in the Jug is a little different
than what happens in your engine- because in your engine, the air is under compression. Compressing air makes for another challenge. Air is a bunch of molecules all rubbing against
each other- when the air gets compressed, those molecules rub together more,
and when they rub together they generate heat. More compression means More heat. In a hot engine, there is a chance, that fuel
will combust without a spark. That’s called engine pinging, or pre-ignition-
and that’s bad. If the explosion happens at the wrong time,
you’re not going to get the performance you should, the piston and combustion are
working AGAINST each other- and you risk damaging your engine. Originally, they fixed it by adding lead to
the fuel. Because lead made the gas more stable at high
temperatures. No More Pinging. But we stopped doing that because putting
lead in everything is dumb and hurts your brain. That’s why all the gas at the pumps says
UNLEADED. That’s also why paint chips don’t taste as
good anymore. Guys. what are we doin? I gotta have my chips! What are those numbers on the pump? 87? 89? 91? That’s the octane rating. The higher the octane rating, the more resistant
the gas is to pre-igniting– What the hell is an Octane rating? Octane is chemical like gas that’s super
resistant to spontaneous ignition, so we use it as a standard by which we measure gasoline. The Octane Rating–that’s the number you see at the pump– isn’t how much Octane is in the Gas, it’s just how well that gasoline mixture resists ignition
under pressure COMPARED to Octane. For example, 87 is 87% as good as octane at
reducing pre-ignition. So that’s why high performance cars with
turbochargers, and high compression engines gotta make sure they use high octane gas so it doesn’t combust early under all that pressure. Does higher octane gas better for my engine? Not necessarily. Will Higher Octane gas help clean my engine? No! Higher octane gas will not ignite until it’s
supposed to. That’s what it means. If you don’t drive a car that needs higher
octane gas, you’re better off using 87 like the rest of us peasants. So, it started as rotten ancient bug juice,
we’ve refined petroleum into this miracle fuel that drives almost everything… So now you know a little bit more about Gasolene,
what it is, how it works, and what all that stuff at the pump means. Can we blow something else up? Yeah. Let’s use ethanol. The longer we weight, the bigger it will be. This is ethanol. They put it in Gas. You also put it in your belly. It gets you crunk. Thanks for watching, guys! Don’t forget to like, subscribe, comment
and share! I had a blast! I’m going to be doing this every week. We’re going to talk about the nitty gritty
about cars. How they work, what’s in ‘em. I wanna know what you guys wanna know. Tell me what you guys wanna see us blow up! What you guys would like to see cut in half? What do things look like on the inside? I need an excuse to do stupid stuff. Give me an excuse! Let’s get into it together. Let’s find out how cars work! Don’t tell my wife I did this! I’ll see you guys next week!