Introduction

Introduction


Good morning. No, no no not this way. Good
morning. Good morning sir. Welcome to this course in
better spoken English. Do you know, why we say good morning? What is the full form of
good morning? Anybody please, raise your hands. What is the full form? There is you know,
good morning comes at the end of a sentence. What is the sentence? The full sentence. Anybody,
yes, please. I wish you a good morning. I wish you a good morning. Thank you very
much. What is your name? Chinmaya.. Chinmaya, do you know why English people wish
each other or one another, good morning? England is a pretty cold, wet and windy country; you
know, they are summer temperatures are something like eleven and twelve degrees Celsius. Imagine
their winter; also imagine its drizzling all the time. Yes, just as we have air conditioner
here they have heaters in the room, class rooms. And then it is windy. So, when they
meet one another, they wish one another good morning or good afternoon or good evening.
And when the part, what do they say? When the part , have a nice day, and when it is
dark after sunset, either good evening or good night. I welcome you to this course in
spoken English What will this course give you? As you might
see on the slides, this course has three very simple objectives; our first objective, as
the institute desires is, to help you learn presentation skills; as engineering scientists,
as scientists or later as practicing managers, you will be expected to make lots of presentations;
there are studies which show that, an average scientists or an average manager spends close
to 40 percent of his time or her time, sorry making presentations or attending presentations.
It is it is going to be extremely important for you that you acquire this skill. Even
at this institute, before you walk out with your B-Tech or M-Tech or any other degree,
you will be expected to make lots of presentations am I right. Say, yes or no I am a right. Yes sir. Right you know. So, it is extremely important
that you know your subject, and it is more important that you must also know how to present.
What you know? We will not be dealing with everything. But some basic of the presentation
skills will be dealt with here; the second objective is to help you acquire some public
speaking skill. You know public is speaking English another kind of affair; it is like
theatre; it is like politics; it is like you know whole lot of things. There are lots of
people who know quite a lot; who know much; who are masters in their subject, but when
you ask them to address a crowd of 500 people in an international conference, they get tense;
they become nervous; they almost you know start sweating; they forget their own name
or their topic. So, public speaking is going to be an extremely important part of your
personality and your carrier growth. If you want to lead your own friends, your peer group;
you will have to be an effective public speaker, which means, you should be able to talk to
a thousand people with the same degree of comfort with which you talk to your neighbour
in the hostel, your mother or father or other relatives; not father, fathers are difficult
to talk right. Mothers, yes. You know, you should be at ease. So, we will try and see;
look at some skills that make you a good public speaker. How many people here feel nervous,
when they speak in public? Have you ever spoken in public? Yes or No? Yes sir. But we we will overcome it, before the end
of this semester. And the end of this course, you will become an effective and a confident
public speaker; you may not have anything to say, but you will still be saying something.
So, feel happy. Finally, because you know, you will most of the time be making professional
presentations and public speeches in English; therefore, it is important that you should
also acquire some basics; very fundamentals of English pronunciation. You know, how many
of you have ever been to a course in English pronunciation? No one, you know in our Indian
schools and colleges, we do not teach spoken English; that is one reason and a very important
reason, why this institute has a course in spoken English; you also know that, when it
comes to speaking, English is a different kind of language; its writing system does
not always indicate pronunciation; sometimes c u t is cut, but b u t is, I will later tell
you that, any in many parts of the United Kingdom, in many parts of England in particular,
c u t is also cut not cut, but that is an exception. you know the point I am making
is the following, that English s spelling is not necessarily a good indicator of English
pronunciation; sometimes when you are in doubt, you should be able to look up a dictionary,
check the pronunciation and get it right Later, I am going to ask you to buy a dictionary;
buy any dictionary you know Then you I will I will give the hand out or tomorrow or I
will tell you later, an advanced leaner s of dictionary of any brand will be all right.
This will be your course book; the better spoken English, acquire a copy as soon as
you can. This will guide you through the course. And there are exercises in this book; do those
exercises as I tell you and you will find that your your pronunciation, your accent
is changing. You are becoming a more and more confident speaker. Is there all alright? Do you understand? Yes. Am I too rapid for you? No sir. Are we together? Yes sir. Lovely, may god bless you? How shall we evaluate you on this course?
No examinations, feel happy laugh. Laugh. Say wow; wow no examinations; it is a examination
is such boring thing for both the taught and the teacher. It is more boring for us. Imagine
yourself, looking at 40 answer scripts of a service standard guide; nothing is more
hazardous to your health. Then looking at those scripts, and then at the end each student
is ready to fight with you. Why he or she did not get 101 on 100, but we survive. So,
on this course I took permission of the senate to have no examinations. But they asked me,
the senate ask me, how will you distinguish between Arun and Kiran? Will they all get
the same marks? I said no. Then, I said, each student here will make four presentations.
And those presentations will be evaluated on a progressive scale. You know. So, First
presentation will be for about 50 seconds. If you like, you I have given your handout;
it says that, if you like you can make a note. The first presentation will be for 50 seconds.
And the first Presentation will take place tomorrow; make a note. Tomorrow 8 o clock,
you will be talking about yourself. Please write. You will be talking about yourself.
The next three presentations; as the slides tell you will happen in February, March and
April. As I have as I told you yesterday, and as I have written on these slides, the
next presentation will be for 110 seconds. The Third Presentation will also be for 110
seconds. And the final presentation will be for 120 seconds. They will have different
kinds of topics; I will tell you about them, as we approach those topics. For tomorrow,
prepare a presentation on, who I am? Please write. I will I will tell you more about,
what you can tell me on this topic, a little later. Let me go through the introductory
part first. Is there all right? Is that alright? Say,
yes or no. yes sir Any questions please? Anything? Shall we go? Yes sir. Are we together? Yes sir. Are you comfortable? Yes sir Lovely! This is the text quite told you about,
why do we need a course in spoken English? You may ask, after all you speak English,
don t you? Is there any one here would has not speak in English? Since you are all ready
walking, already running, why should you have a course in running? Or, why should you have
a course in walking? You may ask me. right The answer is extremely simple. The answer
is, number one; English is a spoken language. You know, like Sanskrit; how many of you know
Sanskrit here? Yes, lovely one, two, three; not bad. Last semester, I taught a course;
we had 56 at students and only one boy said he knew Sanskrit here; at least 3 out of 40s,
we have better percentage here. You know Sanskrit is a wonderful language, but it is no longer
popularly spoken language; it is no longer, a popularly spoken language; it is mostly
confined to reading a books or wedding ceremonies or last rites, when your grandfather or people
like me die. But it is really the case that, a boy tells another boy in Sanskrit, let us
bunk the class. Does it happen? Does it? Or does not it? Or it is really the case that,
an engineering scientist today makes a presentation in Sanskrit. Of course, Doordharshan, the
television of the government of India has a news telecast in Sanskrit. Have you seen
that telecast? Any one? Raise your hands. Lovely. So, there is you know, but Sanskrit
is not a popularly spoken language right In Europe, Latin has nearly the same prestige
and a status; you know it is mostly you know confined to books or the church or to some
extremely restricted purposes all right; but unlike them English is a spoken language;
English is the language of business; no matter what company you join. Even if you join Eenadu,
even if you join Ushodhaya industries in Hyderabad, the language of business is… Is it Telugu
or English? It is English even when you join Nav Bharath times, even when you join Hindi
speaking television or mass media company, the business records are mostly kept, even
in Indian today in English. And worldwide English is the language of business. I am
not saying business cannot be performed in other languages, but by accidents of history,
it so happens that English is the language of business today. English is also the language
of science and technology. According to some people, all data on all the computers of the
world put together have a huge portion only in English. These days you have search engines
which also run in Tamil and Hindi and Bangla and Marathi. But most of the time, what is
it? English And English is also you know, when you go to an international conference
or multidisciplinary conference where people from physics and mechanical engineering and
humanities come together, then you do not to speak there; you do not make presentations
there in Telugu or Tamil or Hindi or bangla. You make your presentation there in English.
Even in Europe until recently French used to be the language of science, until about
the first world War. But after the first world war, English gradually, because of American
quote and quote power English became gradually became the language of the world. Even beauty
contest is held in English, even a sports are has conducted in… Sports events are
conducted in English. Moreover as I told you earlier, as for as I know, no school in Indian
teaches a proper curricular course in spoken English, am I right? Am I right? yes sir. So all the more reason you know that you should
have a course in Spoken English. Let us go. You might say, is my Spoken English not all
right, already? I would say, yes. It is or nearly all right you know I have no difficult
in understanding; you you have no difficult to understanding me. I hope. Do you understand
me? Yes sir Do you understand me? Do you understand me? yes sir But when you go beyond your city, town or
village or country; when you go out in the world, English is not spoken in the same way
with the same accent all over the world. Moreover, written English is guided by spelling, punctuation,
vocabulary. You know, different kind of grammar; I am sure you have appeared at English language
examinations, where you had questions testing your knowledge of spelling, vocabulary, punctuation,
am I right? But have you ever appeared at an examination which tested your knowledge
of stress, , rhythm, have you?. So, you know that is the point. Spoken English has a different
grammar; a spoken language, any spoken language be it Telugu be it. Hindi, you know when we
write we write elaborately complete sentences (FL). But in you know when we speak, we just
say hello, hi; that is a complete three sentences hello, hi or good morning. And ok are you
ok? that is how it is understood? yes spoken language has a different grammar. What are
the features of a spoken language? Number one: it is not guided by a spelling and punctuation.
What is it guided by then? What separates one word from another one phrase from another
one sentence from another? How are these words put together? It is guided by these three
things. Please make a note on your notebook, and I am going to ask you to learn to speak
with these three things. What are they can? Anyone read it loud to me. What are they? Pause pause stress and intonation. And intonation not intonation intonation together What are these? Pause pause stress intonation together again. What are these three things? Pause pause stress stress and intonation intonation. You know, you pause just as you leave a space
between words. When you write, you pause between words and phrases between phrases. When you
speak, stress some part of the sentence is stressed just now I was stressed three these
are the three things. I did not say these are the three things; I did not say these
are the three things; Did I say that, I stressed three you know in spoken language stress is
important which part of the sentence is stressed, which part of the word is stressed if it is
a long word then which part of the word is stressed in English, that is extremely important.
So, pause stress and intonation. What is your tone are you asking question has the taxi
arrived? or are you making a statement. Of course, the taxi has arrived. Do you see my
point? You know that sentence in in spoken English. You do not say has the taxi arrived?
Question mark in writing you do that you see has the taxi arrived question mark. But when you speak to your friend, you do
not say Arun, has the taxi arrived?, question mark. Do you say that then, how does Arun
know? It is a question. Arun knows it is a question; Kiran knows it is a question. Because
of your tone, you have a question tone has taxi arrived? Is IIT, Madras a good institute?.
Of course, it is because you are here right. So, you know different kinds of sentences;
have different kinds of tones. We have to learn pause stress and intonation. You already
know quite a lot. It is not that you know nothing you already quite a lot, but if there
are a few missing parts you have to acquire those missing parts. Am I clear to you? Yes sir Say yes or no, everybody please. Yes sir I see you no smiles on your faces; I see you
worries. Are you comfortable? Yes sir. Lovely! May god bless you for a pause look
at them for one minute look at them, silent look at the slides silently, but carefully
and then I am going to ask some of you to raise your hands and read some sentences aloud,
but with pauses. Do you understand? Look at these sentences; take any one sentence and
I will ask you read it aloud with pauses sentence or phrase or words whatever they are, but
before you speak, you I will request you to raise your hands. So, that my friends behind
the camera can pick up your lovely face; your bright young charming face on their camera.
Who first raise your hand? You do not have to take an entire sentence; take any one line. What s your name? Rohan. Rohan, lovely! Rohan, read the first line. to be or not to be is the question. Marvellous! That is great; that is fantastic.
Next. What s your name? Amhan. Amhan. Hamlet – the prince of Denmark. Next, next come on, please any one raise your
hand. Please, at least some people. Do not you want to be picked up by the camera? The new oxford English dictionary, edited
by Richard Murphy and published in 1916, by Clarendon Press in oxford United Kingdom. Next, yes, what is your name? Tamil. All the beautiful red roses Next. What is your name? There is something rotten in the State of
Denmark Europe You must take pause and must take audible
pause. You know I am asking you to be silent, such that your silence is heard. Do you see
the point? You know where you speak? And when you suddenly go silent, your silence is heard.
I have been speaking for the last 20 minutes, and if I stop speaking, then my silence will
be heard. I have stopped speaking. So, you know there should be pause, but it should
not be too long; it should not be too short. I will tell you, as we go into it. We are
going to spend quite some time learning to speak slowly, but these things are extremely
simple; these are common sense things. And you have done it clearly, rightly. Nearly
everyone of you, one or two of you, did it extremely well. You know, it is just common
sense. So, that is pause; that is the grammar of
spoken English; that is what you have to learn. What is stress? In English you know, we will
spend quite some time on. It nearly 10 hours talking about this in English; there are no
hard and fast rules about there or rules about which part of the word is going to be stressed.
But unlike our languages, it is not always the beginning of the word or the end of the
word. You know it; it changes; it varies for a number of reasons. English words are different,
different words or differently stressed and we know the words we know, the spelling of
those words. But once again, nobody has drawn our attention to something called stress on
these words. So, for example, look at these words before you I am going to ask you to
speak. Those words you know read; those words aloud to me with proper stresses or those
who have not spoken. So, that they also they are also; their phrases are also captured
by the camera. How many of you can? Any one first. Who is going to read some words aloud? Raise
your hand, somebody please. Any? What s your name? Amhan. Amhan, Any? Next, you can stop next. What s your name? Ashwini. Ashwini. Almost, Next. What s your name? Nisanth. Scientific. Not, but I will tell you. I come back to you. yes Always. What s your name? Adhithya. Adhithya. Always. Always next, Arun. Engineer. Right you see, do you have spoken about six
words and at least four of them had been mispronounced. Watch me, your pronunciation of any was right.
It is any the first part is pronounced speak with me any any once again any yeah stress
first part any any then the next word is stress the first part almost. but that that is towards again it is first
part of the word again always. Always. Say it again. Always. Say it again Always, but the next word the second part
is stressed. So, what is it. Between. What is it? Between. What is it? Between. Between, say it again? Between. The next word, Cement; Cement, second line first word component not
component it is component. What is it? Component. Say it again? Component Say it again. Component. Next word. Competence No, the first part is stressed. What is it? Competence. Competence What is it? Competence Open your mouth full and then close it slowly.
Competence, competence that is English. Say, come on again. Competence, open your mouth
full slowly; close it slowly. Competence, competence say it again. Competence. Great! Next? Develop. No, that is develop. What is it? Develop Listen to me again, develop. What is it? Develop Come again. Develop. Once again. Develop. Yeah, it is develop. Next, Engineer. You guys
are going to be x and you do not how to pronounce that. It is not engineer. It is listen to
me carefully. It is engineer. What is it? Engineer. Once again. Engineer. Once again. Engineer. Next time, I do not want anybody in this class
to be pronouncing his profession as engineer. You are going to be? Engineer. Engineers. What are you going to be? Engineers. What are you going to be? Engineers. Engineers or engineering scientists next line
the first word Academic. No, it is academic. Who said that? What is your name? Raise your
hand; let your let the camera capture your lovely face. I am so proud of you academic. What is it? Academic. So, you do not go to the academic section.
You go to the academic section. What is it? Academic section. Academic, for once again. Academic. Once again, Academic. Yes next. Scientific. It is scientific. What is it? Scientific. Stress t; t has the loudest; you know the
greatest loudest noise scientific. What is it? Scientific Once again, what is it? Scientific. Once again, Scientific. And the last word, the challenge the Mount
Everest – the peak. What is it? Obsolescence Engineers always talk about this; what is
it? Obsolescence. No, it is obsolescence. What is it? Obsolescence. What is it? Obsolescence. So, you see from these few words that different
English words. Are you with me? Yes sir. Everybody please, are you tired? No. No, may god bless you. Different English words at differently stressed;
unlike as you know, we do not say Amar and then we do not say Arun, but in English you
know somebody is Robert, but other person in you know Macbeth; that is how they are
English are a funny people and their language is also funny. But you know; I mean it in
a lighter sense light way but this is how it is. So, when you learn a new word, you
must also learn its pronunciation; particularly, the way it is stressed. Do you understand
me? Next, intonation: what is intonation? I told
you a while ago that meaning partly lies in the word, and partly lies in the tone; the
same words can make you laugh, and the same words make you cry if I tell you. So, you
think you are honest right? Is it a compliment? Is it a compliment? No. Why not? why why not? Your tone voice is different. My tone voice is intimidating, sarcastic,
threatening . I almost said, Arun I will cut your head, kiran; I will cut your head and
speed post it to your father in law or your mother in law; it was sarcastic but it can
also be encouraging, enthusiastic, jovial, loving, affectionate. Oh you are an honest
person What is it? Even if Arun is caught stealing a pencil from my room, and if I say
oh Arun come on you are in honest person What kind of tone is that? Encouraging Do not steal the pencil again. It is a mistake.
You know, sometimes boys makes us mistakes. So, tone is extremely important; meaning does
not lie only in words; it is partly also the function of the tone. We will talk more about
it, as we go along, but the point I am making is spoken English is a different cup of tea.
Do you see the point? Yes or no? Yes. Because, it is used in a different manner;
you do not say, Arun are you honest? I am forecasting, Arun you are honest? I am encouraging
you do not say for breakfast.t I take butter comma bread comma omelette full stop. Do you
do that? You do not, but you pauses are of different lengths. For breakfast I take coffee,
bread and omelette with some milk and fruits you know. So, this is how it goes; when I
said ok, I did not say ok question mark your tone; your pause gives you the sentence. I
am going to ask some of you to read some of these sentences aloud slowly; do not be in
a hurry; there is no hurry right Those who have a not spoken yet. So, who first? The
first the first expression come on? Come on, those who have not expressed. Do not feel
shy. This is a course in Spoken English; you would not learn how to you speak? What s your name? Ajay Ajay, marvellous! Oh god! My god! This not o god is like you know, you are whispering
is like cheating at an examination hall. Do it loud, you are crying to god come again.. Oh god. Yes. My god! Oh god my god come again Oh god my god. My god stress out god lot of sometimes you
can say my god, but that is rare you know we will oh god god round your lips. Everybody please. O god! My god! you see the difference, and
oh god, my god, it is look like you were going from HSB to Mandakini hostel and you got wet.
enthusiastic cry to god the supreme father or the supreme enemy whatever you like. So,
you it has to be the tone has to be like that oh god your lips up to be rounded oh god my
god next Who will do next? What is your name? Please… What alone? Oh no, common this kind of expression What a lovely! What is your name? Raise your hands. ya What
is your name? Jadhav. Jadhav What a lovely rose! Next, common please, are you are you afraid
of making mistakes? Remember, one oldest about knowledge and learning nobody. You have not
learnt anything unless he or she is ready to make mistakes, and ready to accept it for
do not make the same mistake again. There is nothing that we have learnt without making
mistakes. Do you remember, when you begin eating your milk and rice, I was there. The
first day, when you began eating your milk and rice, it went in every hole except your
mouth; it went into every hole; your ears, your eyes, your nose except into your mouth.
But today you keep talking on the phone yes I am a studying and you keep eating right.
So, practice. Do not be afraid of making mistakes? Common, next you will do that sentence. What dirty weather? Not a first rose. Lets first get rose; the
second line there. What a lovely rose! Oh god! You guys are, you know have do not
you watch good films in the OYT. What s your name? What a lovely rose! Your name? No. The young friend behind you, What a lovely rose! Dinesh . What a lovely rose! What a lovely rose! You know the ordinarily speak. It can said
in all possible ways as you have said, but ordinarily speaking. The you know the most
important here is, what what a lovely rose. You know the real joy in your you know voice.
What a lovely rose, and the what thing is to be over all emphasised. Common. Do it. What a lovely rose! No is like you are running away from the class,
laugh. Go slowly; you are giving rose to a good friend
not necessarily in the other gender. common. Say it again What a lovely rose! Take time, what a lovely rose! What a lovely rose! This is tone. You know, you have to learn
these little basic things. Next next line? Who will do that? who will do that? What dirty weather. What dirty weather? You know stress. Then,
what dirty weather? Come again, please what is your name. Saurav, come again. What dirty weather! Yeah what dirty weather! Next line. What a
pity! Next line, somebody. Ah I am sir. I am Karthik. What a pity! Ya what you know stress? what what a pity!
Next is it is a. Who will like to read it aloud? What is your
name? Gokul, sir. Ya Gokul come on. John is honest, but lazy. Yeah can you some make more variations? John is honest, but lazy. Yeah John is honest, but lazy. But lazy. What
would you like John is lazy? But honest, what would you prefer? Please call. Lazy, but honest or honest, but lazy Honest, but lazy. Honest, but lazy. How many people would prefer honest, but lazy?
And how many people would prefer lazy, but honest? right You see these are the nuances
next line. Is that, the name of a boy or a girl? Girl. Yeah, a girl. An English girl. you know I
should have take in Mary, but I forget to add r there. But is still her name; the name
of a girl. So, what is it? Can you read it loud? May dishonest make it disgusting May
is efficient, but dishonest because it Ashwini is efficient, but dishonest pardon me right
you know your tone is extremely important to a spoken language computed; there has been
lot of engineering in computer science and engineering to produce to make machines produce
naturally speech. And believe me, they produce naturally speech. The only problem for them
is, they cannot bring intonation they cannot bring a variety of tones. Someday I will take
it to the speech laboratory of the computer science department, and I will ask my colleagues
to play some conversation to you believe me the computer can talk like you and me, except
that they are the same metallic tone. The train is coming on time from Vijayawada. passenger,
please wait know. Where as, I get excited hey the train is arriving now, please come
the machine cannot get that kind of tone There are many other things that make a spoken
English different form written English. As we go on, we will pick up these things; these
things are basically you know go to speaker as a sound commonsense; these things apart
of common sense, you do not really have to learn anything which is very highly technical
or quantitative or difficult. We have to bring you commonsense into play, say for example,
if you relatively if you the everything else being equal do you think slow speaker will
be better heard or rapid speaker will be better heard; obviously, slow speaker will be better
heard. So, I am going to over emphasise slow speech on this course. Tomorrow aan we talk
about tomorrow? Yes, tomorrow I am going to ask you to speak about yourself everybody;
you will have 50 seconds only. Please prepare. You may ask me 50 seconds hardly any time
what can I say in 50 seconds you can a speak at least. Are you with me Yes sir. You can speak at least three 100 words in
50 seconds. If you a speak the way I am a speaking; now, if you speak more rapidly,
then it can be much more, do not do that speak about 6 to 7 words for a second. Slowly with
pauses, with proper tone and then tell us something about yourself. What can you tell
us? Your name, your hall number, hostel and room number; that will take fifteen seconds.
Then do not tell me your JEE rank I am sick and tired. JEE rank was because of Agarwal
or other coaching; tell me something about who you are, something which speaks about
you as the person your hobby s your ambition, your dream. The kind of do not tell me silly
or dirty jokes, but tell me something relevant about yourself, something important about
yourself. What, how do you, when you have free time what you like to do? A large number
of people like to sleep on their free time? Some other people chat on phone or mail. How
many of them go to library during free hour? Are you that kind? You know, not be that kind
and it is not that everyone who goes to the library is a great angel and those that do
not go they are devils, but each person here has a different concept of a spending free
time. So, tell me about you can bring a photograph, if you like you can bring your slides, if
it is possible we will upload them here. If you can give them to my friends, I have some
friends, I will tell you about them. If you can give it to them, they will upload it before
you come and then tomorrow each of you will have to speak for 50 seconds; I will make
notes; I will call you one by one. And then I will give you feedback later. So, just of
few things about to yourself. Who you are? Where you come from? How you spend your free
time? What are your dreams? What are your hobbies? What are your problems? Some failures
from which you learnt, some successes from which you learnt, but not everything, you
cannot speak about everything. Pickup what is interesting about you? And you will have
a great 50 second presentation. If possible rehearse before you speak here tomorrow; you
have any questions, you can also bring up to two slides. I will see it; we can upload
it and because the class tomorrow is at eight o clock I am not sure how we can upload it.
But let us see prepare it and contact me this evening. I will contact my friends in the
studio here and if they can upload it that will be great. But even if you do not have
the slides, it really does not matter. Your will be picked up by the camera and my friends
in other countries in other colleges will admire your lovely teeth which is not bad
right. Do you have any questions before I stop I will like to summaries this course
has a very simple objective. It wants to teach you; it wants to help you acquire number one;
presentation skills number two; public speaking skills. Number three: globally acceptable pronunciation
of English so, that you do not say competence or component is a component, but competence.
Why is this spoken English is important? Because, it is a spoken language. It is a language
of business science and technology; it is the language of sports for anything global,
today. Actually, for anything national today. You know, even in Indian even within India
if you want to do something at the local level you can use only Tamil or Telugu or Hindi.
But if you want to do something at the national level you know Eenadu sells sells 2 million
copy, but it is regional paper Hindu sells only 7 lakh copyies, but it is the national
paper because it is in English. So, if you want to do anything national, English is the
language; alright spoken English is a different cup of tea from written English. Why is it
different? Because Spoken English guided by What are the three things common again? Pause stress and intonation. Any questions, thank you have a good day.